By Michel Ballard
Landscape chronologique de l'évolution institutionnelle, économique, sociale et culturelle des États latins d'Orient depuis l. a. première croisade de Pierre l'Ermite, en 1096. Au-delà de l'histoire de l. a. Syrie franque, c'est une examine des rapports entre chrétiens d'Orient et musulmans au Moyen Age.
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Additional info for Croisades Et Orient Latin : XIe-XIVe Siècle
Although these were improved and reformed, although some of them—Birmingham after 1873, Vienna after 1890—undertook important pioneering work in public planning and control, although other towns, at least in Europe, followed up their work or, more frequently, had it imposed upon them by central government action, they were becoming ineffective without central assistance and control. Every further stage in the internal transport revolution, in the growth of industry, in the movement of population and the growth of urban areas and in the complexity of society increased the inadequacy of local authorities except as agents of the central government—and not least because every advance in scientific and administrative knowledge revealed that nothing less than central action would suffice if the knowledge was to be applied.
The advances in public health and education were accompanied in most of these countries by the extension of state control over working conditions. Factory laws were introduced—in Belgium, the Netherlands, Switzerland in the 1870's, in Austria from 1883, in Italy and Spain from 1886, in France from the 1890's. Where they existed already they were extended, as by the British Factory Acts of 1878, 1886, 1891 and 1901— —the last two of these introduced into England the principle of delegated legislation by permitting the Home Office to make further large changes in regulations without further legislation—to deal with shops and laundries as well as factories, with the working-hours of men as well as of women and children, with the control of occupational diseases as well as with simpler safety regulations.
The embracing of social reform and the extension of the franchise by these governments were not the same thing as the advance of democracy. If the decisions to take these steps were usually administrative rather than political manoeuvres—exercises in the use of established authority rather than consequences of a struggle for the possession of authority—neither did they have much effect as yet in altering the composition of the governing classes. In few countries were they accompanied, as they were in Great Britain as a result of the Ballot Act of 1872 and the Redistribution Act of 1885, by secrecy of voting and an equitable distribution of constituencies.
Croisades Et Orient Latin : XIe-XIVe Siècle by Michel Ballard