By Giovanni Regine, Maurizio Atzori, Romano Fabbri (auth.)
This e-book examines intimately the diagnostic effect of contrast-enhanced ultrasound within the evaluate of urinary tract pathology, paying specific cognizance to the diagnostic achieve that could be anticipated when it comes to different imaging options corresponding to CT and MRI. The function of contrast-enhanced ultrasound is evaluated in quite a number pathologies, together with ischemia, trauma, irritation, cystic lesions, and good tumors, in addition to within the imaging of anatomic versions. New functions, for instance tracking of kidney transplantation, overview of urinary bladder lesions, and analysis of vesico-ureteric reflux, also are coated. The awarded circumstances, drawn from the authors’ own medical caseload, comprise photos bought utilizing multimodality concepts, occasionally with 3D CT reconstruction. The authors’ personal studies are in comparison with the newest experiences within the clinical literature.
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Additional info for Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound of the Urinary Tract
Akbar SA, Jafri SZ, Amendola MA et al (2005) Complications of renal transplantation. Radiographics 25:1335–1356 14. Wilson SR, Burns PN (2010) Microbubble-enhanced US in body imaging: what role? Radiology 257:24–39 15. Quaia E (2007) Microbubble ultrasound contrast agents: an update. Eur Radiol 17:1995–2008 16. Schwenger V, Korosoglou G, Hinkel UP et al (2006) Real-time contrast-enhanced sonography of renal transplant recipients predicts chronic allograft nephropathy. Am J Transplant 6:609–615 17.
Many authors [20, 28–31] have integrated the qualitative and quantitative aspects; with dedicated software it is possible to automatically compare the peak intensity and then create time/intensity curves at several locations of the renal parenchyma, thereby comparing the differences in behavior between healthy renal 32 2 The Kidney parenchyma and the site of an expansive lesion. It has been noted that the clearcell malignancies demonstrate a lesser peak intensity in the early arterial phase compared to that of healthy renal parenchyma .
In fact, the presence of new urothelial formations within the kidney may be suspect when accompanied by hydronephrosis or when a mass is detected with infiltrative growth into the parenchyma: compared to the baseline sonogram, CEUS can more accurately identify the presence of a lesion with heterogeneous and variable postcontrast enhancement (Fig. 1), when combined with calyceal dilatation or of the renal pelvis (Fig. 2); but it does not provide a reliable determination if it belongs to the urinary excretory system.
Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound of the Urinary Tract by Giovanni Regine, Maurizio Atzori, Romano Fabbri (auth.)