By J. W. Martin
This Concise Encyclopedia attracts its fabric from the award-winning Encyclopedia of fabrics: technological know-how and know-how, and contains updates and revisions no longer on hand within the unique set. This custom-made number of articles presents a convenient reference for fabrics scientists and engineers with an curiosity within the constitution of metals, polymers, ceramics and glasses, biomaterials, wooden, paper, and liquid crystals.Materials technology and engineering is anxious with the connection among the homes and constitution of fabrics. during this context "structure" could be outlined at the atomic scale on the subject of crystalline fabrics, at the molecular scale (in the case of polymers, for example), or at the microscopic scale. each one of those definitions has been utilized in making the current choice of articles.
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Additional resources for Concise Encyclopedia of the Structure of Materials
0%. Solid-state sintering of polycrystalline alumina developed from a commercial need (see, for example, Bennison and Harmer 1990). In the late 1950s researchers at the General Electric Company laboratories in the USA required a translucent material that was resistant to alkali attack at high temperatures for 23 Binary Oxide Ceramics: Al2O3, ZrO2, Structure and Properties of use in envelopes in sodium-vapor discharge lamps, the sort now used extensively for street lighting. The primary problem was the inherent opacity in sintered material due to the presence of pores that efﬁciently scatter visible light.
This is due to their high thermal expansion coefﬁcient and low thermal conductivity. The low thermal conductivity tends to cause steep thermal gradients during heating or cooling and the high thermal-expansion coefﬁcient results in large thermal strains or high stresses. The discovery that thermal shock resistance was improved by only adding enough of the alloying element to partially stabilize the cubic phase led to the use of the partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) as a refractory and its later development as an engineering ceramic due to its high toughness arising from transformation toughening, a development pioneered by Garvie et al.
Yttria-stabilized zirconia system. One way of describing the process is as a dissolution process, according to the following chemical reaction, written in Kroger–Vink notation (Kroger 1974) as: ZrO2 0 Y2 O3 - 2YZr þ 3OxO þ V O That is, because the yttria is dissolving to form a solid solution with a well deﬁned crystal structure it must form anion and cation sites in the correct ratio; in this case 2:1. Since the stabilizer does not supply enough anions, relative to the number of cations it supplies, its presence produces oxygen vacancies (indicated above as VO).
Concise Encyclopedia of the Structure of Materials by J. W. Martin