By S C Siekierski, J Burgess
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Additional info for Concise Chemistry of the Elements
3 radii increased significantly between beryllium and boron and consequently were relatively large for succeeding elements, then the diatomic molecules and the functional groups mentioned abO\·e would either be non-existent or would be much less stable. 1·gen can even form n bonds with such much larger atoms of the 3p series as silicon, phosphoms and sulphur. However, the bonds are then not pn-pn but pn-dn. In a pn-dn bond the smaller atom provides the p orbital and two bonding electrons, whereas the larger atom provides the empty d orbital.
It should be noted that the effective charge on a bonded atom is less than its oxidation number, particularly for high oxidation states. 2 OXIDATION STATES OF s AND p BLOCK ELEMENTS The s elements show oxidation numbers equal to the Group number, whereas the p block elements also show oxidation numbers two below the (old) Group number. For instance tin shows oxidation numbers +4 and +2 (the old Group number is IVA). The tendency to show the lower oxidation state is attributed to the inert pair effect.
Exact \'alues can be obtained from quantum-mechanical calculations. It is interesting to notice the difference between shielding of the nuclear charge for s, p and for d, f electrons by inner electrons. O ford and/ electrons. The reason is that d and/ electrons, in contrast to sand p electrons, only negligibly penetrate the ,·icinity of the nucleus (see eq. 11) and are, therefore, well screened from the nuclear charge by electrons in the next inner shell. Screening of s and p electrons by the next inner shell is less efficient because they ha,·e a higher probability to reside near the nucleus.
Concise Chemistry of the Elements by S C Siekierski, J Burgess