By Thomas H. Ollendick
As famous by way of its identify, the point of interest of this e-book is based on an exam of habit remedy with youngsters in scientific settings. all through, our target has been to check theoretical underpinnings, evaluate empirical examine, and illustrate medical application for various behavioral proce dures with young children. In pursuing this target, we now have defined baby habit treatment as an strategy in accordance with empirical method, de rived from behavioral rules, and targeted upon adjustment disor ders of youngsters. The hallmark of such an procedure is its responsibility the level to which the methods and methods provided during this textual content are demonstrably dependable has to be made up our minds at the very least in part through the reader. As scholars of kid habit, we have now turn into sensitized to 2 traits in habit remedy with little ones through the coaching of this e-book. First, now we have been serious about the easy program of behavioral tactics to youngsters, regardless of developmental con siderations. All too often, evaluation recommendations and remedy professional cedures came across to be important with adults were utilized to young children in an indiscriminate type. for instance, a few contemporary stories have tested and assessed the exact same social ability deficits in young children as in adults (e. g. , loss of eye touch, behind schedule latency of reaction, and shortage of confident commendatory responses). without doubt, ability deficits vary from age to age simply as they fluctuate from state of affairs to situation.
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Extra info for Clinical Behavior Therapy with Children
In this procedure, an analysis is undertaken of the skills needed to perform the criterion, a sample of these skills is presented, and a measure of skill competence is obtained. Intelligence and achievement tests are successful as predictors of academic grades because they involve, at least in part, criterion sampling 42 CHAPTER 2 (McClelland, 1973). When these tests are used to predict criteria that are not directly sampled, they are less valid and lead to the aforementioned limitations. From a behavioral perspective, there are several advantages to using these instruments.
In sign learning a conditioned stimulus takes on aversive properties by being paired with a noxious unconditioned stimulus. Mowrer assumed that emotional responses (fear) engendered by the noxious stimulation also become associated with the conditioned stimulus. The fear response is conceptualized as an aversive stimulus that in turn serves as a drive. Since fear is learned, it is a secondary drive produced by sign learning. Subsequent presentation of the conditioned stimulus cues the fear drive which in turn can be reduced or terminated by engaging in behavior that removes the feared stimulus (running).
Hull's model) also fail to account for avoidance learning since these models assume that learning occurs because the termination of the noxious unconditioned stimulus reinforces the avoidance response. , shock) in the learning situation but also eliminates the reinforcement that is directly contingent on the occurrence of the drive state. Consequently, this drive reduction model has difficulty accounting for learning and maintenance of avoidance responses. Likewise, models based on the Law of Effect cannot deal efficiently with avoidance learn- 20 CHAPTER 1 ing since it is assumed that pleasurable consequences (reinforcement) are necessary for acquisition and maintenance of a new behavior and that aversive consequences (punishment) lead to the elimination of the response that preceded it.
Clinical Behavior Therapy with Children by Thomas H. Ollendick