By O. Neugebauer
The selection of papers assembled the following on numerous themes in historic and medieval astronomy used to be initially prompt by means of Noel Swerdlow of the college of Chicago. He was once additionally instrumental in creating a choice* which might, ordinarily, be at the related point as my publication the precise Sciences in Antiquity. it will possibly additionally supply a basic history for my extra technical background of historical Mathematical Astronomy and for my version of Astronomi cal Cuneiform Texts. numerous of those republished articles have been written simply because i needed to place to leisure well-entrenched historic myths that can now not stand up to shut scrutiny of the resources. Examples are the meant astronomical beginning of the Egyptian calendar (see ), the invention of precession through the Babylonians , and the "simplification" of the Ptolemaic method in Copernicus' De Revolutionibus . In all of my paintings i've got striven to provide as properly as i'll what the unique assets display (which is frequently very assorted from the got view). hence, in  dialogue of the technical terminology illuminates the that means of an old passage which has been usually misused to help smooth theories approximately historic heliocentrism; in  a nearly remoted example unearths how Greek world-maps particularly regarded; and in  the Alexandrian Easter computus, held in awe by means of many historians, is proven from Ethiopic resources to be in keeping with extremely simple procedures.
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Extra resources for Astronomy and History Selected Essays
19 It can be safely assumed that the coffin lids are very abbreviated forms of contemporaneous representations on the ceilings of tombs and mortuary temples of the rulers of the Middle Kingdom. The logical place for these representations of the sky on ceilings explains their destruction easily enough. The earliest preserved ceiling, discovered in the unfinished tomb of Senmut, the vezir of Queen Hatshepsut,20 is about three centuries later than the coffin lids. 23 The difficulties we have 17 Pap.
It is self-evident that the man who devised this method did not think that the sun moved for about half a year with constant velocity and then, having reached a certain point in the ecliptic suddently started to move with another, much higher velocity for the rest of the year. His problem was clearly this: to make a very complicated problem accessible to mathematical treatment with the only condition that the final consequences of the computations correctly correspond to the actual observations -in our example, the inequality of the seasons.
I. INTRODUCTION 1. In the following pages an attempt is made to offer a survey of the present state of the history of ancient astronomy by pointing out relationships with various other problems in the history of ancient civilization and particularly by enumerating problems for further research which merit our interest not only because they constitute gaps in our knowledge of ancient astronomy but because they must be clarified in order to lay a solid foundation for the understanding of later periods.
Astronomy and History Selected Essays by O. Neugebauer