By John Holm
This textbook is a transparent and concise advent to the examine of the way new languages come into being. beginning with an outline of the field's uncomplicated innovations, it surveys the hot languages that built as a result of eu enlargement to the Americas, Africa, Asia and the Pacific. lengthy misunderstood as "bad" types of ecu languages, at the present time such forms as Jamaican Creole English, Haitian Creole French and New Guinea Pidgin are well-known as targeted languages of their personal correct.
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Translated by Gilbert 1986b) Thus Oldendorp considered all European languages spoken natively by West Indians to have been inﬂuenced by the high degree of language contact in the Caribbean area. He attributed the even greater divergence of the speech of blacks from the standard languages to the inﬂuence of their African languages. It is clear from the following that he considered creole to be ‘the language of blacks’ and understood how it was acquired by whites: ‘Since the white children are taken care of by black women and grow up among black children, they ﬁrst learn creole, or the language of blacks, and sometimes they never learn another properly.
The spread of Britain’s commercial empire during this period led to the emergence of restructured varieties of English in Africa and Asia as well. The ﬁrst published reference to a local West African variety of English is in Francis Moore’s 1734 Travels into the inland parts of Africa: ‘The English have in the River Gambia much corrupted the English language, by Words or Literal Translations from the Portuguese or Mundingoes’ (p. 294; cited by Hancock 1969:13). In his book, A voyage to the East Indies in 1747 and 1748, C.
Adam (1883:10) compared Middle English to the The development of theory Caribbean creoles when he suggested that the speakers of African substrate languages ‘mounted a resistance comparable in some measure to that of the Anglo-Saxons who, after the Norman conquest, made their grammar and phonology prevail over that of their conquerors’ despite the massive borrowing of French vocabulary into Middle English. g. Domingue 1977, Thomason and Kaufman 1988) stop short of claiming that Middle English resulted from creolization.
An introduction to pidgins and creoles by John Holm