By Philip Arestis, Rogério Sobreira, José Luís Oreiro
In regards to the writer PHILIP ARESTIS Cambridge Centre for Economics and Public coverage, division of Land financial system, college of Cambridge, united kingdom; Professor of Economics, division of utilized Economics V, Universidad del País Vasco, Spain; distinctive Adjunct Professor of Economics, division of Economics, college of Utah, US; Senior pupil, Levy Economics Institute, long island, US; traveling Professor, Leeds company institution, college of Leeds, united kingdom; Professorial study affiliate, division of Finance and administration experiences, tuition of Oriental and African reports (SOAS), collage of London, united kingdom; and present holder of the British Hispanic beginning 'Queen Victoria Eugenia' British Hispanic Chair of Doctoral reviews. he's leader educational Adviser to the united kingdom govt financial provider (GES) on specialist advancements in Economics. He has released as sole writer or editor, in addition to co-author and co-editor, a few books, contributed within the kind of invited chapters to varied books, produced examine experiences for study institutes, and has released generally in educational journals. ROGÉRIO SOBREIRA affiliate Professor of Economics and Finance, Brazilian college of Public and enterprise management at Getulio Vargas beginning and CNPq Researcher. He has released a number of articles in educational journals and invited chapters frequently on banking law, banking company, funding financing and public debt administration. He co-edited 5 books, all in Portuguese: *Financial and Banking rules* (Atlas), *Development and the construction of a state – fiscal coverage* (FGV), *Development and the construction of a kingdom – Public coverage* (FGV), *Fiscal Adjustment: The Case of chosen international locations* (FGV) and *Monetary coverage, relevant Banks and Inflation concentrating on* (FGV). he's member of the Brazilian Keynesian organization. JOSÉ LUIS OREIRO affiliate Professor of Economics at collage of Brasilia (UnB), point I Researcher at nationwide clinical Council (CNPq/Brazil), Director of the Brazilian Keynesian organization (AKB) and Member of the Editorial Board of Brazilian magazine of Political economic climate (REP). He has released greater than 60 articles in educational journals in Brazil and different nations, three books as editor and contributed within the type of invited chapters to many different books. in accordance with REPEC, he belongs to best 10% of educational economists in Brazil.
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The collapse of the subprime mortgage market by mid-2007 also meant the end of the housing boom and the burst of the housing bubble. Defaults on mortgages spread to investment banks and commercial banks in the US and across the world via the elaborate network of CMOs and CDOs. The complex structure of the CMO and CDO markets complicated the task of credit rating institutions, which erroneously assigned AAA-status to many worthless papers. In fact some 80 per cent of the total value of CMOs and CDOs were rated as having AAA credit rating, thereby treated as completely safe (Goodhart, 2009).
We take the view that although these factors were important, they were not the original cause of the ‘Great Recession’. They were accentuating the process of financial liberalisation and innovation rather than being part of the cause of the crisis. The rest of this section will attempt to explain the process just suggested. 1 Income redistribution effects An important factor that contributed substantially to the ‘Great Recession’ emerged from the steady but sharp rise in inequality, especially in the US and the UK but also elsewhere.
In spite of these unfavourable trends in the real wage rate and wages and salaries, since the 1970s, the compensation of employees, which includes in addition to wages and salaries employer contributions for government social security and employee pension and insurance funds, shows a more complicated picture. 4). 5 per cent. 5 per cent compared to 9 per cent in wages and salaries and a more than 10 per cent shortfall in the real wage rate to productivity. The smaller deterioration in the compensation of employees to wages and salaries, though, is partly due to higher employer contributions for government social security and employee pension and insurance funds.
An Assessment of the Global Impact of the Financial Crisis by Philip Arestis, Rogério Sobreira, José Luís Oreiro