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By Shafarevich I.R. (ed.)

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Solution. We calculate the points at infinity on the complexification of the circle given by the equation x2 + y2 = 1. These are the asymptotic directions (z = ± x) of the hyperbola x2 − z2 = 1, that is, those points at infinity in the complex projective plane CP2 that the points of the complex plane C2 with coordinates (x = t, y = it) and (x = t, y = −it) approach as t → ∞. For any other circle (always, in fact, with an equation of the form ( x − a)2 + (y − b)2 = r2 , the asymptotic directions are the same.

By applying results of the topology of 4-manifolds to this manifold (complexifying the surface F), I proved Gudkov’s conjecture on congruence, but only modulo 4, not modulo 8. Using my proof, V. A. Rokhlin completed the proof of Gudkov’s conjecture modulo 8;16 this achievement stands today as one of the central results related to Hilbert’s 16th problem. This advance in real algebraic geometry has thus grown from investigations of Hilbert’s question on the topology of plane algebraic curves of degree 6.

This follows from the fact that the output of the “sources” of such a velocity field, as well as the field itself, is spherically symmetric. At the same time, the flux of this field through the surface of any sphere with centre at the attracting point (“the amount of liquid passing through this surface in unit time”) is the same for any sphere (since the velocity is inversely proportional to the radius of the sphere, while the area of the sphere is directly proportional to the square of the radius).

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Algebraic geometry I-V by Shafarevich I.R. (ed.)

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