By Andrew P. Winrow, Michael A. Gatzoulis, G. Supramaniam
The 1st name within the new Paediatric Revision sequence. This e-book contains of a hundred distinct scientific pictures with questions designed for the candidate venture the MRCP(paed) half 2 exam. every one question/answer is followed by way of appropriate evidence and knowledge plus aiding references. the pictures and questions hide many universal and weird medical circumstances noticeable in daily medical perform, and likewise within the exam. the pictures are new and feature now not been formerly released.
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Additional info for 100 Paediatric Picture Tests
Vigorous drying is often sufﬁcient. More aggressive methods of stimulation include rubbing the infant’s back and slapping the soles of its feet. Thermoregulation The newborn is at great risk for hypothermia as amniotic ﬂuid evaporates. Hypothermia results is increased oxygen consumption, hypoglycemia, and, if severe, respiratory and metabolic acidosis. Premature and asphyxiated newborns are especially vulnerable to the deleterious effects of hypothermia. Heat loss is prevented by placing the infant under a radiant warmer and quickly drying off the amniotic ﬂuid.
Assessment 3 SHOCK 13 of the adequacy of the airway and ventilation is performed while administering 100% oxygen. Intubation and assisted ventilation is indicated in cases of fulminant shock and when acidosis is not immediately corrected with volume resuscitation. This is particularly important in managing septic and cardiogenic shock. Early intubation will protect the airway, and ventilatory support will remove the work of breathing and improve metabolic balance. After establishment of oxygenation and ventilation, treatment includes rapid ﬂuid replacement to establish effective intravascular volume.
Both volume and pressure ventilators have the ability to provide positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), which is especially important in situations in which there is decreased lung compliance. 3 SHOCK 9 The major side effect of excessive PEEP is decreased venous return to the right side of the heart and decreased cardiac output. In the emergency department setting, PEEP is usually set at 3 to 5 cmH2O. For a more detailed discussion, see Cowan M, Abramo T: Respiratory failure, chap. 2, p. 4, in Pediatric Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide.
100 Paediatric Picture Tests by Andrew P. Winrow, Michael A. Gatzoulis, G. Supramaniam